Total: 140
A trip to work: Estimation of origin and destination of commuting patterns in the main metropolitan regions of Haiti using CDR
Development Engineering, Volume 3, 2018.
Author(s): Guilherme Augusto Zagatti, Miguel Gonzalez, Paolo Avner, Nancy Lozano-Gracia, Christopher J. Brooks, Maximilian Albert, Jonathan Gray, Sarah Elizabeth Antos, Priya Burci, Elisabeth zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Andrew J. Tatem, Erik Wetter, Linus Bengtsson.
Type: method. Year: 2018
DOI: 10.1016/j.deveng.2018.03.002.

Abstract: The rapid, unplanned urbanisation in Haiti creates a series of urban mobility challenges which can contribute to job market fragmentation and decrease the quality of life in the city. Data on population and job distributions, and on home-work commuting patterns in major urban centres are scarce. The most recent census took place in 2003 and events such as the 2010 earthquake have caused major redistributions of the population. In this data scarce context, our work takes advantage of nationwide de-identified Call Detail Records (CDR) from the main mobile operator in the country to investigate night and daytime populations densities and commuting patterns. We use a non-supervised learning algorithm to identify meaningful locations for individuals. These locations are then labelled according to a scoring criteria. The labelled locations are distributed in a grid with cells measuring 500 × 500 m in order to aggregate the individual level data and to create origin-destination matrices of weighted connections between home and work locations. The results suggest that labor markets are fragmented in Haiti. The two main urban centres, Port-au-Prince and Cap-Haïtien suffer from low employment accessibility as measured by the percentage of the population that travels beyond their identified home cluster (1 km radius) during the day. The data from the origin-destination matrices suggest that only 42 and 40 percent of the population are considered to be commuters in Port-au-Prince and Cap-Haïtien respectively
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Gridded Population Maps Informed by Different Built Settlement Products
Data 2018, 3, 33 .
Author(s): Reed, Fennis J. Gaughan, Andrea E. Stevens, Forrest R. Yetman, Greg. Sorichetta, Alessandro. Tatem, Andrew J
Type: method. Year: 2018
DOI: 10.5258/SOTON/WP00643.

Abstract: The spatial distribution of humans on the earth is critical knowledge that informs many disciplines and is available in a spatially explicit manner through gridded population techniques. While many approaches exist to produce specialized gridded population maps, little has been done to explore how remotely sensed, built-area datasets might be used to dasymetrically constrain these estimates. This study presents the effectiveness of three different high-resolution built area datasets for producing gridded population estimates through the dasymetric disaggregation of census counts in Haiti, Malawi, Madagascar, Nepal, Rwanda, and Thailand. Modeling techniques include a binary dasymetric redistribution, a random forest with a dasymetric component, and a hybrid of the previous two. The relative merits of these approaches and the data are discussed with regards to studying human populations and related spatially explicit phenomena. Results showed that the accuracy of random forest and hybrid models was comparable in five of six countries
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Gridded birth and pregnancy datasets for Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean
Scientific Data volume 5, Article number: 180090 (2018).
Author(s): W.H.M. James, N. Tejedor-Garavito, S.E. Hanspal, A. Campbell-Sutton, G.M. Hornby, C. Pezzulo, K. Nilsen, A. Sorichetta, C.W. Ruktanonchai, A. Carioli, D. Kerr, Z. Matthews & A.J. Tatem
Type: method. Year: 2018
DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2018.90.

Abstract: nderstanding the fine scale spatial distribution of births and pregnancies is crucial for informing planning decisions related to public health. This is especially important in lower income countries where infectious disease is a major concern for pregnant women and new-borns, as highlighted by the recent Zika virus epidemic. Despite this, the spatial detail of basic data on the numbers and distribution of births and pregnancies is often of a coarse resolution and difficult to obtain, with no co-ordination between countries and organisations to create one consistent set of subnational estimates. To begin to address this issue, under the framework of the WorldPop program, an open access archive of high resolution gridded birth and pregnancy distribution datasets for all African, Latin America and Caribbean countries has been created. Datasets were produced using the most recent and finest level census and official population estimate data available and are at a resolution of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 km at the equator). All products are available through WorldPop
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Temporal trends in spatial inequalities of maternal and newborn health services among four east African countries, 1999–2015
BMC Public Health 2018 18:1339 .
Author(s): Corrine W. Ruktanonchai, Kristine Nilsen, Victor A. Alegana, Claudio Bosco, Rogers Ayiko, Andrew C. Seven Kajeguka, Zöe Matthews and Andrew J. Tatem.
Type: method. Year: 2018
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-6241-8.

Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to account for the highest regional maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the world, at just under 550 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015, compared to a global rate of 216 deaths. Spatial inequalities in access to life-saving maternal and newborn health (MNH) services persist within sub-Saharan Africa, however, with varied improvement over the past two decades. While previous research within the East African Community (EAC) region has examined utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of geographic accessibility, no research has examined how these spatial inequalities have evolved over time at similar spatial scales.
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